Exosomes are extracellular vesicles (that’s particles that release naturally from a cell that cannot replicate) that are responsible for certain genetic information, otherwise known as Exosomes cell to cell communication. They transport molecules that are essential regulators of intracellular information between close and distant cells.
Exosomes play a vital role in the communication and rejuvenation of all the cells in our body. Despite not being a cell, Exosome has proven to be quite important in maintaining a healthy cellular terrain.
Exosomes are typically made by growing stem cells in culture. Taking the media where they grow and then getting rid of the stem cells. Due to the small size of Exosomes, the media is then ultra-centrifuged to concentrate the exosomes.
Exosomes contain different molecular constituents of their cell origin; these include proteins and RNA. Meanwhile, the Exosomal proteins composition varies with the cell and tissue of the origin; most Exsomes contains an evolutionarily conserved common set of protein molecules.
HOW TO ISOLATE EXOSOME FROM CULTURE STEM?
Exosomes can be isolated from culture stem cell using the method Ultracentrifugation. Often combined with sucrose density gradients, they float the relatively low-density Exosomes from other microvesicles. Cells and larger particles are removed by sequentially increasing the centrifugal forces. These procedures can take up to 30hours and requires an ultracentrifuge, extensive training and specialized equipment.
This method provides highly enriched exosomes but requires specialized training and equipment.
Now, this is how Exosomes works:
Exosomes carry genetic information. Protein and messenger RNA, they can relay this information, letting cells know when to and how to react. This Exosomes cell-to-cell communication is possible due to its unique shape and content.
Exosomes from young stem cells rejuvenate the older cells and assist in calming an overreactive immune system or modulating it to respond in a coordinated and more effective fashion.
WHAT IS EXOSOME THERAPY?
Exosome therapy is one of the hottest areas of regenerative medicine treatment. Researchers have given us valuable insight into the practical functionality of exosomes. While stem cells are usually responsible for the rejuvenation of older cells, they may not be able to supply all the information needed. So supporting Exosome function could have a greater positive effect, by providing a new piece of information to enhance the healing process.
Exosome therapy is a minimally invasive procedure commonly used in orthopedic injuries, for anti-aging and some other degenerative diseases. Exosomes treatment contains growth factors, messenger RNA, micro RNA, cytokines and other biologically active molecules in conjunction with stem cell therapy to speed up healing benefit.
Exosome therapy can be injected into the affected area like in orthopedic injuries or given intravenously for anti-aging.
This Exosome injection is administered directly into the affected area, and the dosing for every patient varies, and there is no set protocol.
Exosomes treatment is gaining popularity recently, due to its ability to transfer molecules from one cell to another via membrane vesicle, therefore influencing the immune system, such as dendrite cells and B cells.
What is exosome therapy used for?
HAIR LOSS: Exosomes injection can be used to regrow hair loss due to its growth factor content. When injected, Exosome will trigger healing, cell stimulation and natural regeneration of these hair follicles. Exosome hair loss therapy is cutting-edge in hair restoration. According to research, there is a positive relationship between Exosomes and Hair loss. Exosomes are ideal for people with thinning hair, excessive shedding or hair loss proper. This is because Exosomes are regenerative cells that can heal, repair, stimulate and restore cells and tissues.
LYME DISEASE: Exosomes may help to regulate processes in the body, and may also be beneficial to patients with Lyme disease. Lyme disease is a very complex disease, which compromises the immune system. Many Lyme patients suffer from dysfunction of the mast cells, increasing their inflammatory response and metabolic function. Incorporating Exosomes treatment in their treatment regimen may help break the inflammatory response and provide the body with necessary cellular information to facilitate healing.
ARTHRITIS: Arthritis as we all know, is the joint inflammation resulting from an autoimmune disease. Although various types of treatment are available to alleviate symptoms, no known therapy has been confirmed effective in reversing the disease progression.
In the field of regenerative medicine today, with the discovery of extracellular microvesicles, especially exosomes, many researchers have been able to offer a more exciting alternative on this subject matter. Exosome arthritis therapy is believed to play a more substantial role in bone and cartilage remodeling.
In a nutshell, Exosomes provides enormous potential in the field of regenerative medicine. You can advance your understanding of Exosomes and its relationship with stem cell in this course. This is an online-course https://www.cellulartherapycourse.com/ where physicians and medical personnel can get insight and deep understanding of this novel science (Exosome).
The human immune system helps to protect the body against illness and infection caused by bacteria, viruses, fungi, and parasites. This process is achieved by a collection of reactions and responses made by the body to damage these infected cells. It is also called immune responses.
This immune system is very crucial in cancer patients to help fight cancer, it dictates this cancer as abnormal and destroys it, but this is not enough to rid of cancer altogether. In most cases, cancer will weaken this immune system because it will spread into the bone marrow that produces blood cells that fights against infections and cause the bone marrow to decrease in its blood cell production.
When this immune system is unable to recognize these cells as abnormal, cellular growth will occur, causing uncontrolled growth and division of cells, that will, in turn, lead to cancer.
Cancer has been a serious and sensitive talk for both patients and doctors. Being diagnosed with cancer is frightening and tormenting, but due to the latest treatment method, recovering from this disease is increasingly possible. Living with cancer often brings an initial psychological crisis, but surprisingly it does not only affect you but your family and others close to you.
Cancers, especially genetic cancer can’t be prevented, so it is essential to be proactive about your health. If you’re diagnosed with cancer, some individual lifestyles that will help improve your cancer care, which includes managing stress. Reducing your stress level can help you to maintain physical and mental stress; you can use relaxation techniques such as meditation and yoga. Getting enough sleep is also crucial for patients living with cancer; this will help improve their health, mood, and coping ability. Also, it is best the limit their exposure to toxins that can increase one’s risk of being exposed to other deadly diseases.
A healthy feeding habit is critically important and can help manage cancer side effects, improve health, and quick recovery. Some tips to help you develop a good and healthy feeding diet include:
- Consuming assorted types of vegetables in all your meals. Vegetables are essential and should not just be a side dish but the centerpiece of your meal.
- Consuming foods rich in fiber like grains, beans, peas, nuts, and seeds.
- Consuming less red meat, like pork, lamb, goat, and bison.
- The presence of probiotic and prebiotic foods helps to support a healthy gut. Probiotic foods include yogurt or other fermented vegetables, and prebiotic foods include raw or cooked onions, dandelion greens, and legumes.
- Avoid processed and canned foods
- Avoid foods high in calories and low in nutrients like fruit-flavored drinks, sodas, candies, and sweets.
- Lastly, cut down on the excessive intake of alcohol.
Some other routines can help improve cancer care like regular exercise. Regular exercise helps to control fatigue, muscle tension, and anxiety in those with cancer, and it is essential, especially during and after cancer treatment, so keep fit and avoid adding unnecessary weight.
There are many cancer treatment options for different types of cancers. Cancer treatments depend on the type and how to advance it is. Some patients with cancer will only have one treatment option, while others will end up with a combination of more that one treatments technique depending on the type and stage of cancer.
Curing cancer is one of the significant challenges of the 21st century. However, few advances to tame the immune system are getting closer to a future where cancer can be a curable disease.
Although cancer treatment is dependent on the stage and type, we need a wide range of therapies that work on cellular level like NK cell and stem cell therapies, wide enough to cover the whole spectrum of cancer. Cancer therapies involving the immune system is believed to be a milestone for cancer treatment advances, and the development of multiple immune cells as a therapeutic tool.
Our knowledge of cancer has dramatically improved in recent years. And it seems increasingly evident that there has been a surge of new technologies, and these technologies could make a great impact on the way we treat cancer, taking us closer to finally curing this deadly disease.
One of these promising cancer treatment advances is the natural killer (NK) cell-based immunotherapy.
Natural killer cells have emerged as the newest promising therapeutic approach to cancer. Our understanding of the biological processes that take place in cancer is increasing rapidly, leading to this new type of targeted treatment and therapeutic approach. It is hard to overstate the possible importance of NK cells in the future of cancer. Modern researches have shown that NK cells are a type of treatment that stimulates a persons’ immune system to fight cancer, and this may give room for a greater number of chances to beat cancer for good. NK cells are also known for their ability to target cancer stem cells making these cancer stem cells visible to the immune system.
NK cells was first identified in the 1970s as a unique lymphocyte subset that can recognize and kill abnormal cells without prior sensitization of specific tumor antigen, thus preventing the growth of many cancers. During the late 1980s, something was observed, and this was that NK cells could destroy a lymphoma cell line that had lost MHC class I surface molecules while the original MHC class I+ cells were resistant to lysis, which led to the formation of the “missing self-hypothesis” which states that NK cells can sense the absence of “self” MHC class-I molecule on target cells. In recent years, the hypothesis was confirmed by the inhibitory and activating NK cell receptors.
This discovery indicates that autologous cells are not killed by NK cells, thanks to an appropriate expression of all self-HLA alleles, do not kill an autologous cell. In contrast, a wide spec of cancer types can be killed due to the loss of HLA molecules and to the expression/overexpression of ligands for NK cell activating receptors.
Now, this is how NK therapy works
NK cells firsts recognize the tumor cells via stress or danger signals from their sensors.
Then, the Activated NK cells directly decimate the target tumor cells through at least four mechanisms. These mechanisms are cytoplasmic granule release, death receptor-induced apoptosis, effector molecule production, or ADCC.
Furthermore, NK cells act as regulatory cells when reciprocally interact with DCs to improve their antigen uptake and presentation. This action helps in facilitating the generation of antigen-specific CTL responses that is vital in dictating foreign invasion and tumor cells.
Also, by producing cytokines such as IFN-γ, activated NK cells induce CD8+ T cells to become CTLs. Activated NK cells can also help in the differentiation of CD4+ T cells toward a Th1 response and promote CTL differentiation. Cytokines produced by NK cells might even have the unique ability to regulate antitumor cells, making them more proactive.
Accordingly, The cytokine gene transfer approach induces NK cell proliferation, and this increases survival capacity. Further enhancing their activation and also making them more potent in malignant cell multiplication dictation.
The NK cell scientist has assured that by using NK cell lines, modifying genes such as IL-2, IL-12, IL-15, and stem cell factor (SCF). They have been demonstrated the ability of the NK to restore their cytotoxic capacity as well as increase their proliferative rate, survival ability, and in vivo antitumor activity. However, the specificity of NK cells is still limited, and studies are even passing through phases. The approach focuses on retargeting NK cells to tumor cells by gene transfer of chimeric tumor-antigen specific receptors.
NK therapy is promising research; it raises the prospect of “one-end-solution” to many different types of cancers across the Globe. If the studies and experiments work out pretty well, the NK cells will be able to increase the activity of CD4+, CD19, and other important disease-fighting cells of the body.
There is no doubt that this an unimaginable feat, both in advancing our basic knowledge about regenerative medicine and for the possibility of future cancer treatment advances.
Some people believe that stem cell does all of this but studies have shown that It’s unlikely only in a few unique cases. You can observe minimal growth a year after the patient took treatment, but this doesn’t mean replacement of the cartilage.
The cartilage has a reduced regenerative capacity, and current and present pharmacological medications only offer symptomatic pain relief. Osteoarthritis patients that respond poorly to conventional therapies are ultimately treated with surgical procedures to promote cartilage repair by implantation of artificial joint structures (arthroplasty) or total joint replacement (TJR). Surgery has been the last resort for serious cartilage problems.
In the last two decades, stem cells derived from various tissues with varying differentiation and tissue regeneration potential have been used for the treatment of osteoarthritis, damage to bones and others either alone or in combination with natural or synthetic scaffolds. The stem cells derived from these tissues primarily aid cartilage repair. Although stem cells can be differentiated into chondrocytes in vitro or aid cartilage regeneration in vivo, their potential for Osteoarthritis management remains limited as cartilage regenerated by stem cells fails to fully recapitulate the structural and biomechanical properties of the native tissue. It isn’t easy for the cartilage to regrow and assume its original biomechanical and structure form.
Apparently, Due to the limited intrinsic capacity of resident chondrocytes to regrow the lost cartilage post-injury, stem cell-based therapies have been proposed as a novel therapeutic approach for cartilage repair.
Also, stem cell-based therapies using mesenchyme stem cells (MSCs) or induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) have been used successfully in clinical and preclinical situations.
Part of the issues associated with Mesenchyme stem cells can be averted by using iPSCs. iPSCs are an ideal patient-specific unlimited cell source for autologous tissue regeneration. With the Promising in vitro; studies have shown that vitro results have already been demonstrated in the cartilage engineering field for iPSCs. These were generated from various cell types.
What Is Cartilage and How Does It Get Damaged?
Cartilage is a connective tissue in the human body and body of other animals. In our joints, we have a few kinds of cartilage, but most often people refer to the smooth lining of a joint called articular or hyaline cartilage. This kind of cartilage gives rise to a soft layer of cushion on the end of a bone at the joint. The cushion is essential for balance, mechanical functions and athletics. This tissue of the cartilage is very strong, yet it can compress, readjust and absorb varying degrees of energy. It is also very slippery, smooth and flexible and these features allow the joint to glide effortlessly through a broad range of physical motions of any kind.
When joint cartilage is not working correctly or damaged, this smooth-cushioning-layer can be worn away, and this becomes a problem. In the case of traumatic injuries, sometimes a sudden force causes the cartilage to break off or poorly become damaged, exposing the underlying bone of the body. In the case of osteoarthritis (also called degenerative/wear-and-tear arthritis), over time that smooth layer can wear thin and uneven. Aging can also cause the cartilage to break off and certain life factors and diseases too, e.g. autoimmune diseases.
Eventually, as that cushion of the bones wears away, joint movements can become inflexible, stiff and painful on one or both legs (bones). Joints can even become inflamed and swollen. And as all these conditions, typically causes pain and limitations in activity become problematic. The action or activities that involve these bones leads to crushing pain and discomfort, depending on the severity of the case. Almost all activities involve the movement of bones; hence this condition is not an easy one.
There are some treatments for cartilage damage and arthritis. Although there some medicines, most of these treatments are focused either on relieving symptoms by smoothing down the damaged cartilage or concentrate on replacing the joint surface with an artificial implant. The later is for end-stage conditions, and the artificial plane is procedures such as knee replacement or hip replacement surgery.
How Can Stem Cells Help?
Stem cells are specialized cells that can multiply reform and develop into different types of tissue. In the developmental stages of a fetus, stem cells are plentiful and surplus. However, in adulthood, stem cells are restricted to specific tasks of regenerating a few types of cells, such as blood cells and liver cells in some cases of damage. There are almost no stem cells found in cartilage tissue, and therefore there is little to no capacity to heal or regrow new cartilage. For adults, the ability to regrow new cartilage is even more difficult due to age and lack of stem cells in the cartilages.
Most often, in the setting of orthopedic surgery and joint problems, stem cells are obtained from adult stem cell sources. The primary sources are bone marrow and fatty tissue. These stem cells can develop into cartilage cells, called chondrocytes.
They also exhibit some other helpful qualities by stimulating the body to reduce inflammation, stimulate cell repair, and improve blood flow. This process is caused by the secretion of cellular signals and growth factors to stimulate the body to initiate healing processes.
Once stem cells have been obtained, they need to be delivered to the area of the cartilage that damaged. One option is to inject the stem cells into the joint. There have been many studies investigating just this, and some data shows improvement in symptoms. How much of this improvement is the result of new cartilage growth versus other effects of stem cells (the healing properties listed above, including the anti-inflammatory effects) is unknown.
There is a challenge with giving stem cell injection. The problem with just injecting stem cells is that cartilage is a complex tissue that is comprised of more than only cells hence this can pose a challenge because the stem can’t regenerate all the things in the cartilage.
To regrow the cartilage, the complex tissue structure and biomechanics of cartilage must also be reconstructed to its former status. Cartilage can often /described as having a scaffold-like structure that is composed of water, cells, collagen, and proteoglycans, and infection-fighting antibodies. Injecting just the stem cells is thought to be less effective in stimulating the formation of the entire cartilage structure hence the challenge.
Some studies are investigating the types of 3-dimensional tissue scaffolds engineered to have a cartilage-like structure. The stem can then be injected into the scaffold, in hopes of better restoring a healthy type of cartilage. Three-dimensional printing is becoming an exciting part of this type of research. If everything works out as expected, the cartilage reconstruction could be achieved to a very high percentage.
How do stem cells work?
Necessarily, stem cells are progenitor cells which are capable of regeneration and differentiation into a wide range of specialized cell types. Once injected, stem cells follow inflammatory signals from damaged tissues and have multiple ways of repairing these damaged areas. It works as though the part is developing new; like what is seen during a child’s development.
The mesenchyme stem cells (MSCs) we are using are considered to be multipotent (they can transform into different cell types but cannot form an organ) but not pluripotent. In the body, these cells Do NOT function by transforming into different cell types or tissues.
They act via anti-inflammatory activity, immune modulating capacity, and the ability to stimulate regeneration. We go through a very high thorough screening process to find cells that we know have the best anti-inflammatory activity, the best immune modulating capacity, and the best ability to stimulate regeneration process on the tissue with damage.
ISSCA (International Society for Stem Cells Applications) www.issca.us
This is a business located in Miami, FL, where people around the world come to take a certification in the newest Stem Cells Protocols.
Some organizations have put in efforts to help discover some solutions in stem medicine. International Society for Stem Cell Application (ISSCA ) is one of the leading associations in setting standards and promoting excellence in the field of Regenerative Medicine, researches, publications related education, certification, research and publications.
The ISSCA is a unique-multidisciplinary community of physicians, stem specialist and scientists with a mission to advance the science, technology and practice of Regenerative Medicine. Their aim is to treat disease and lessen human suffering. ISSCA generally advances the specialty of Regenerative Medicine and serves its members.
The ISSCA provides certifications and standards in the practice of Regenerative Medicine as a medical specialty.
Although the expectation on this stem cell course is yet to be achieved; however, this is a part of medicine that can offer one-end-solution to various bone and body problems.
With the recent high-tech studies, efforts and dynamics, stem cell treatment can be a breakthrough in the future as its perspectives are very promising and unique. It is also not dangerous on the long-run.
Induced pluripotent stem cells (also known as iPS cells or iPSCs) are a type of pluripotent stem cell that can be generated directly from a somatic cell. Pluripotent stem cells hold promise in the field of regenerative medicine. Because they can propagate indefinitely, as well as give rise to every other cell type in the body (such as neurons, heart, pancreatic, and liver cells), they represent a single source of cells that could be used to replace those lost to damage or disease.
Natural killer cells are the type of cytotoxic lymphocyte critical to the innate immune system. The role NK cells play is analogous to that of cytotoxic T cells in the vertebrate adaptive immune response. NK cells provide rapid responses to virus-infected cells, acting at around three days after infection, and respond to tumor formation.
Typically, immune cells detect the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) presented on infected cell surfaces, triggering cytokine release, causing apoptosis. NK cells are unique, however, as they can recognize stressed cells in the absence of antibodies and MHC, allowing for a much faster immune reaction.
Clinical Trial on NK cells
In a first clinical trial, a natural killer cell immunotherapy derived from induced pluripotent stem cells is being tested for safety in 64 patients with a variety of solid tumors. The first subjects used for the study received the cells in February at the University of California, San Diego (UCSD) Moores Cancer Center and MD Anderson Cancer Center.
This study is targeting late-stage cancer patients with solid tumors, including lymphoma, colorectal cancer, and breast cancer. The FT500 NK cells do not undergo any further alterations and after their derivation from the induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), offering the possibility of a quicker, ready-made treatment.
Human embryonic stem cells induced iPSCs
Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) and induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) provide an accessible, genetically tractable, and homogenous starting cell population to efficiently study human blood cell development. These cell populations provide platforms to develop new cell-based therapies to treat both malignant and nonmalignant hematological diseases.
The NK cells are immune cells in the same family as T and B cells and are very good at targeting cancer cells for destruction. Some Laboratory experiments have shown they do so by attacking cells that have lost their significant self-recognition signals that tell the immune system not to attack. This is the phenomenon that can happen among cancer cells but not to healthy cells. Experts are not sure how many cancer cells lose that signal. Researchers are hopeful that the clinical trial can help determine which cancer patients could benefit the most from NK cell treatment.
The ability to induce pluripotent stem cells from committed, human somatic cells provides tremendous potential for regenerative medicine. However, there is a defined neoplastic potential inherent to such reprogramming that must be understood and may offer a model for critical understanding events in the formation of the tumor. Using genome-wide assays, we identify cancer-related epigenetic abnormalities that arise early during reprogramming and persist in induced pluripotent stem cell (iPS) clones. These include hundreds of abnormal gene silencing events, patterns of aberrant responses to epigenetic-modifying drugs resembling those for cancer cells, and presence in iPS and partially reprogrammed cells of cancer-specific gene promoter DNA methylation alterations.
Progress in adoptive T-cell therapy for cancer and infectious diseases is hampered by the lack of readily available antigen-specific, human T lymphocytes. Pluripotent stem cells could provide an estimable source of T lymphocytes, but the therapeutic potential of human pluripotent stem cell-derived lymphoid cells generated to date remains uncertain.
Modification of T cells
Recently, some Approved cell therapies for Cancer also rely on modifying T cells, in those cases to produce cancer cell–binding chimeric antigen receptors (CARs), and have been effective in treating certain cancers such as leukemia.
Application of CAR T-Cell Therapy in Solid tumours
The Car T technology has wowed the field by all but obliterating some patients’ blood cancers, but solid malignancies present new challenges.
Therapies that contains such chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cells have been approved for some types of so-called liquid cancers of the blood and bone marrow, large B-cell lymphoma and B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia. But the approach has not had as much success for solid tumors.
Serious research into the therapy for brain cancer started almost 20 years ago after cancer biologist WaldemarDebinski, then at Penn State, discovered that the receptor for the immune signaling molecule interleukin 13 (IL-13) was present on glioblastomas, but not on healthy brain tissue. The receptor thus seemed like an excellent target to home in on cancer cells while sparing healthy ones. The CAR spacer domain that spans the immune cells’ membranes and its intracellular co-stimulatory areas, as well as the process used to expand cells outside the body, to boost the T cells’ activity.
CAR T- A Safer Cell Therapy
While managing CAR T-cell therapy toxicity could help keep already-designed treatments on their march to the clinic, many immunotherapy companies are also working to develop a new generation of inherently safer therapies, yet just as efficient. A crucial part of achieving this goal will be improving CAR specificity for target cells. With current treatments, the destruction of normal cells is often an unavoidable side effect when healthy tissue carries the same antigens as tumors; noncancerous B cells, for example, are usually casualties in CD19-targeted therapies.
CAR T delivery is a non-easy factor in the treatment of solid tumors and other unknown forms of tumors. With the non-solid cancers, cells are administered by a blood infusion, and once in circulation, the CAR T can seek out and destroy the rogue cells. For solid tumors, it’s not so simple.
The main drawback of taking cells from a patient and developing them into a cellular immunotherapy product is that the process can take weeks.
Patel tells The Scientist “But for the majority of patients who may not be a candidate or may not have time to wait for such an approach, the idea that there’s off-the-shelf immunotherapy that could potentially as a living drug act against their cancer, I think is a fascinating concept,”
One of the main things that causes many people cosmetic distress and low self esteem is acne scarring. Most of us have some kind of experience when it comes down to scarring, but the most embarrassing scars are the ones that are out in the open. Such as on our faces. So what can Platelet Rich Plasma do for this?
Well, both the Department of Dermatology, Venereology, and Leprosy, as well as the National Institutes of Medical Sciences have indicated that it can be used as a viable treatment for eliminating scars. One study, done by the Department of Dermatology, Venereology, and Leprosy, sought to evaluate just how effective and safe PRP therapy can be, especially when combined with microneedling. Microneedling has been a common treatment on its own for acne scars, using distilled water, for a long time.
The way that Microneedling works is that it is used to initiate collagen synthesis on the face, thus allowing the skin to heal itself. What it does is cause micro injuries to the skin of the face using small needles. However, since the needles are so small and fine, that it does not cause any serious injury. The initiation transmits electrical signals, which calls on the body to begin a healing process, by causing small inflammation and bringing growth factors to the area.
This healing process causes new blood cells to form, and thus helps to remove the scarring over time. General treatment times are known to take from just a couple of weeks up to a year in many cases. 50 patients were involved in this study, all aged 17-32, and all suffering from acne scars.
On one side of the face, they used regular distilled water combined with the microneedling procedure, and on the right they used a topical solution of PRP. After 3 treatments giving withing the time span of a 3 months, each treatment being 1 month apart, the results that used PRP was much more likely to show improvement over the distilled water group. This would be 62.2% improvement vs 45.8% respectively. This showed that PRP can have great success in managing acne scars, and helping to make them go away.
This shows that when it comes to PRP therapy, the science again shows that there is a good and significant use for it. So what is stopping you from implementing this therapy for your patients?
One of the treatments that the FDA approved for knee arthritis is a Hyalronic Acid (HA) injection, sometimes also known as Viscosupplementation. It has been incredibly successful for knee arthritis. In fact, so successful that many physicians are starting to use it on other parts of the body, like the hip and shoulder, which the FDA does not approve of.
HA, when injected, works like the fluid that naturally surrounds your joints. This fluid can be like a lubricant for your joints, and absorb shock, allowing bones that otherwise cause arthritis pain cause much less. Over time, it is even absorbed into the joint, which can cause the body to create a more stable cartilage all on its own.
The evidence for this treatment is astounding, with a systematic review of 76 trials, all of which were randomized controller trials. The review noted that HA, when injected, can benefit function, reduce pain, and can be a reliable and effective treatment for knee osteoarthritis.
On the other hand, there is PRP therapy. Platelet Rich Plasma, or PRP, which is a type of blood that has 6 to 10 times more platelets than what is normally found in blood. They even contain many growth factors, such as Epidermal Growth Factor, Connective Tissue Growth Factor, and many more. These can help heal injured parts of the body by using the bodies natural healing tools.
However, PRP is not regulated by the FDA, and devices that are used to make PRP require said approval. Aside from this, multiple studies shoe that PRP can be very effective in the treatment of tendon injuries, as well as for osteoarthritis. This treatment can even help in the reduction of pain. There are even more studies being conducted on whether it can help other things, such as hair regrowth, cardiac muscle repair, and even dermatologic rejuvenation.
So should you use HA injections, or PRP?
In many studies, PRP has bee demonstrated to work just as well, if not better than HA. HA is also only FDA approved for the knee, meaning that it is not approved or covered for the use in any other joint. Also, the risk of infection and rejection is far less while using PRP, as it is a substance that comes from your own body, and contains white blood cells, which can help fight infection.
PRP also saves money in the long run, as using HA in a joint other than the knee is not FDA approved or covered by insurance. As a result, it can cost your patient 1500$ or more. This can even be on top of various other charges, such as doctors visits, and even the injection itself. PRP, on the other hand, only costs from 800 to 1200$ out of pocket.
So PRP has been demonstrated to be just as effective, if not better, than HA injections when it comes to arthritis pain. It does not pose a risk for infection or and auto-immune reaction either, and is even far cheaper than HA. So picking which one to use should be a no-brainer.
Despite what the name may imply, not all people who suffer from Tennis Elbow even play tennis. In fact, most of them aren’t. Many of them can be painters, butchers, plumbers, carpenters, and even much any career which can overuse the muscles in the forearm. This can cause the tendons elbow to become painful and inflamed.
The most common treatment for Tennis Elbow after the injury has taken place is rest, anti-inflammatory medicines, and generally physical therapy if it is needed. However, this is more of a temporary fix than a longstanding one. In many cases, if untreated, the pain will worsen, and many need things such as braces for their arm, injects of steroids, and shock wave therapy. Sometimes, although not often, they might even need surgery.
Most insurance companies are able to cover this surgery, as it is deemed medically necessary. However, it does not always end up with the best results. On occasion, surgery may even leave you in more pain than you were in before, potentially causing the need for more surgeries.
So as an alternative for surgery, perhaps try PRP, or Plasma Rich Platelet Therapy? This is a pretty simple procedure that utilizes the platelets and cells in your own body to heal your arm from the inside out. We just take out a bit of your blood, put it in a centrifuge, and extract the PRP to use on your injury. After awhile, it become good as new, without any need for surgery. It also does not need any anti-inflammatory medications, which can lower the side effects that you will see from medications and multiple surgeries.
So try it out if you would like a more holistic way of healing yourself.
In popular media, the term Regenerative Medicine, or Stem Cell Therapy, are becoming buzz words. This is because the field of medicine and healthcare is expanding and advancing every day, and many new treatments for otherwise common ailments are being discovered. These conditions range from burns, joint pain, strain, and pretty much every other common ailment out there
Many patients have given up hope with trying to find traditional medicines that work. This is why many people are flocking to try Regenerative Medicine. This is also something that many people who are into holistic healing are trying, as it is simply the body working to heal itself.
Regenerative Medicine works as it takes a sample of your own blood, bone marrow, and other tissues, and then it goes through a process in which to take out a certain material known as Platelet-Rich Plasma. This PRP is then applied to the infected area, so that your body’s own platelets can work to heal your body back to full health, without having to worry about any invasive surgeries.
A good question to ask is why our body does this do this itself. Well, this is because research has shown that by isolating them, they activate, and as a result when injected back into the body start to work harder to fix the issues, such as in a joint, or helping to relieve pain. Many patients who try it say they have gotten good results from the treatment.
Many doctors predict that this therapy will help physicians provide a more non-intrusive treatment that has fewer side effects, and can be big within the coming years. Many compare it to the invention of penicillin with how important it is. It is even growing in popularity with many physicians using training courses to help their patients, leaving many of them happier and healthier.
The entire field of orthopedics is looking for new regenerative technology that can save more patients more safely. Currently there are two contenders: Platelet-Rich Plasma and Stem Cell.
While PRP is the safest of the two, it’s really hard to dismiss the remarkable capabilities of stem cell therapy. In fact, I believe it’s the future of regenerative medicine. But not at the level it’s playing right now. Which is a totally different discussion we’ll save for another day.
The thing is… there are potential harm with stem cells. And unlike PRP, stem cell’s constituents are man-made, so things can go wrong. We’ll discuss the potential dark side of this therapy later in this article. However, I feel it’s important to highlight how good a treatment stem cell therapy is.
Quick Overview: Stem Cell Vs Platelet-Rich Plasma
Platelet-Rich Plasma is like water and nutrients that help restore (and sometimes accelerate) your body’s EXISTING healing mechanism. If your body is stuck with its healing, PRP can help. It releases growth factors and cytokines to kick start the healing. Stem cells on the other hand is not used to enhance healing, but to create new solutions to healing challenges. So it’s more for tissues that are totally lost.
Stem Cell Vs Platelet-Rich Plasma
With me? Before we proceed, let’s look at a little background of stem cells. We’ll stick to orthopedics for the sake of simplicity.
Orthopedic Stem Cell Therapy
Stem cells are naturally found in the human body and they are a fundamental part of the body’s normal healing process. Stem cells are known as ‘raw potential’ as they can be converted into any cell that the body needs. The body utilizes stem cells to substitute damaged and/or injured cells. This process allows natural healing and repair of the injured or damaged cells.
As the body gets older the amount of natural reserved stem cells starts to decline, which explains why the healing process is slower as the body gets older. Stem cell therapy resolves this shortage by injecting supplementary stem cells into the injured/damaged area of the body, which triggers the cell replacement, natural healing, and pain relief.
Stem cell therapy is a simple and quick procedure, taking about 15 minutes. Pain discomfort is often felt immediately, with the majority people reporting a significant improvement within one to two days.
With stem cell therapy the patient does not have to have any type of surgical procedure, local or general or downtime. Most of the patients experience a complete restoration of the damaged/ injured ligaments, tendons, and cartilage within about in 28 days. Stem cell therapy has been proven to be complexly safe, with no side effects reported in the US or in Europe.
The Difference Between Stem Cell Therapy and Platelet-Rich Plasma (PRP) Therapy
Often times, stem cell therapy and PRP can be confused because they have a lot in common during the healing process. The easiest way to tell the difference between the two, is PRP is removed from the patient’s own body, it goes through a scientific process and is them injected into the area being treated.
The cells used for stem cell therapy can come from a few different places; from an unviable embryo, and unviable fetal stem cells these stem cells are the most often used because the cells are unspecialized and can be made into specialized cells. As it sounds, preparing stem cells for therapy is a complex process. Stem cells are produced in a sophisticated labs by cell biologists and are typically grown over several weeks before it’s ready.
Plus, adult stem cells may be used, although it is not nearly as common yet because scientists are still working on ways to identify stem cells within the tissue of an adult human body.
Stem Cell Vs Platelet-Rich Plasma
So what’s the dark side of Stem Cell Therapy?
The obvious concern is that treatments with stem cells could be dangerous if not carefully controlled. I know we are all doing things for saving lives and helping people live longer, more happily, but the risks must also be considered.
Below are the 5 risks that stem cells carry. (which Platelet-Rich Plasma doesn’t.)
Risk of viruses: Since the stem cells are foreign bodies, if they happen to carry harmful microscopic agents, it’ll bring unnecessary complications. Especially those patients whose immune systems are weak, could be highly vulnerable diseases.
Uncontrolled growth: As I said before, stem cells are produced in a lab and grown over a period of several weeks. However, there is very tiny possibility the growth will continue uncontrolled after installing it into the patient. We pray it doesn’t happen.
Multi-tasking of cells: Stem cells are cultivated and grown into specialized cells that are designed to be doing just one thing and one thing only. But what if, in the long run, they also do other things that wasn’t in the original scope of things? Something to ponder.
That said, I still believe stem cells hold great promise. Now, I want to take this rest of the article to highlight a few of the common conditions that are found to be best for stem cell treatments.
Stem Cell Vs Platelet-Rich Plasma
Rheumatoid Arthritis is caused by inflammation of the joints as a result of an autoimmune progression. The body’s immune system attacks the joints. Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis suffer from mild to severe pain, constant fatigue, warm, and swollen joints. This type of chronic inflammation has the potential to easily damage the joints. Therefore, treatment is concentrated on decreasing the inflammation and slowing down the progress of the condition. Stem cell therapy provides a treatment alternative that takes advantage of the healing and anti-inflammatory effects.
Osteoarthritis is joint inflammation caused by the deterioration of the cartilage that cause the bones to rub up against one another. Patients who suffer from osteoarthritis have pain, stiffness, and a decrease in their range of motion in their joints. Although, there is no cure for osteoarthritis, stem cell treatment focuses on reducing the pain reduction through medication, physical therapy, or occupational therapy. Stem cell therapy provides a treatment alternative that takes advantage of the healing and anti-inflammatory effects. While medication helps with the pain.
Shoulder injuries such as rotator cuff tears and arthritis of the shoulder joint, as well as other types shoulder pain may be responsive to stem cell therapy. Stem cells goal is to renew damaged joints.
Stem Cell Treatment for Joint Repair
Hand and elbow problems caused by arthritis of the joints is a type of deteriorating joint disease that has disabled millions of people. Definite types of wrist and elbow joint issues including certain ligamentous injuries and tendon problems may not benefit from cell therapy. It is very important that the doctor evaluate each patient to see if stem cell therapy is a viable treatment for their patients.
Stem Cell Treatment for Knee
Knee arthritis is a type of deteriorating joint disease, which affects millions of people. Most people believe there only option for pain relief and better mobility is steroid injections or surgery, including total knee replacement surgery. However, that is not the case, many people benefit greatly from stem cell therapy. Specific types of knee issues such as, ligamentous injuries and substantial meniscal injuries may not be responsive to regenerative therapy (stem cell therapy). Each case must be carefully evaluated and the orthopedist will decide what options are best for the patient, in some cases, stem cell therapy is tried even if the patient is not exactly an ideal candidate, but trying is better than just scheduling surgery.
Stem Cell Treatment for Hip
Hip arthritis is similar to knee arthritis; millions of people suffer from hip problems. Patients usually try to delay the hip replacement surgery as long as they can and try other methods such as steroid injections, which for some people do help for a short period of time. However, long tern injects can damage the tissue near the hip. While fractured hips and certain kinds of hip injuries cannot be treated with stem cell therapy, surgery is the only available option left.
Stem Cell Treatment for Joint Repair
Problems with the hands and elbow joints usually respond well to stem cell therapy. If there are problems with the ligaments and tendons, then surgery may be necessary.
Degenerative joint diseases disable millions of people. While certain types of injuries are not a good match for stem cell therapy, there are several that are a good match. Before you prescribe surgery to repair damaged or injured joints consider about stem cell therapy, and if possible give it a try first.